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Evidence-Based Practice

Leaders in Evidence-Based Medicine

Formulating a Clinical Question

(P) Patient, Population, or Problem - How would you describe a group of patients similar to yours?  Consider diagnosis, age, sex & demographics.  What are the most important characteristics?

( I ) Intervention - What treatment or exposure are you considering?

(C) Comparison - This could be a different intervention, such as usual care, or placebo, a different medication, or even no intervention.

(O) Outcome - What are you planning to accomplish, measure, improve, or affect?

(T) Time - duration of the study

Evidence-Based Medicine Pyramid


By CFCF (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons